The Wood-Fired Blog

Dough Structure and High Hydration Dough

Sourdough Rye

I am making sourdough rye today, and pulled out Hamelman’s  Bread: A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes (a really good bread technique book) to looks for some new ideas — and I think I had another ah hah moment.

The Hamelman recipe for a mixed flour Miche calls for 60% whole wheat, 20% whole rye and 20% bread flour, and 83% hydration. Yep. 83% hydration. I was already in motion with 64% whole wheat, 20% whole rye and 16% AP (from the starter), with a multi-stage, and only (haha) 73% hydration — which is typically a lot of water, so I read the instructions more closely. My problem with these high hydration formulas is that my bread tends to ooze sideways, stay flat and not give me the rise/spring that I want. This definitely happens with my wetter baguettes. I also have trouble scoring really wet dough, but that’s a topic for another day.

What I found is Hamelman recommends folding the dough three times at 40-minute intervals, after mixing the pre-fermentation build with the final dough and bulk fermenting the dough for 2 1/2 hours. Then a final 2 1/2 hour proof in linen lined proofing basket.

Thinking about this more, I can see that the extra folding should give my wet dough the strength (body, structure) it needs.

I hope this works.

 

 

100,000 eBooks

We’re making the world a better place one pizza oven at a time — and we’re now past the  100,000 mark for eBook downloads. Very exciting! Today there are many thousands of Pompeii ovens (and nearly 10,000 Forno Bravo ovens) installed across the globe, in North and South America, Europe, Australia and Asia. The Pompeii Oven eBook is free, so if you have been wondering why pizza ovens are so great and how you could put one in your backyard, you should take a look.

Pompeii Oven Cover

 

Pain Pauline at Trader Joe’s

Pain Pauline

Trader Joe’s is like the Wells Fargo Wagon from the musical the Music Man (sorry for the arcane reference). You never know what is going to be new (or which of your favorites has been phased out). Anyway, I was bemoaning the lack of a whole wheat sourdough option at our local Trader Joe’s in Pacific Grove, CA just a while back, but today there was Pain Pauline. A clear play on the famous Pain Poilane from Paris. I’m not sure how it compares with Pain Pascale, but it sure looks similar.

As I noted before, this a nice miche in the traditional French style, and while it doesn’t really compare with the real Pain Poilane, it’s good. Of course it does not compare with a homemade sourdough miche, either in terms of taste or in the smug sense of well-being you get from making your own bread, but then in the past couple of weeks since I got my sourdough culture going, I’ve decided to become a bread snob. haha.

I really like the list of ingredients:

List of Ingredients

Leave it to Trader Joe’s. Now they just need to keep it in stock. Maybe everyone should email TJ’s and tell them to never stop selling it.

Pain Pauline

Mobile Forno Bravo in Des Moines

Mobile Wood-Fired Pizza Oven

Parlo Pizza (I really like their name, Parlo Pizza — which means, literally, “I speak pizza.”) is now live in Des Moines, IA, and they have received some nice press and a fun video from the Des Moines Register.

Turner makes his public debut June 4 at the Beaverdale Farmers Market, and hopes to pop up at other events around town. But before you start planning the super-duper supreme, double cheese, wood-oven pizza of your dreams, know that Parlo Pizza doesn’t work that way. Because the oven is so hot, Turner says, pizzas with loads of toppings just don’t work. 

“The crust is incinerated before the toppings are cooked,” he says.

Parlo Pizza will sell three main “flavors” of pies: margherita (tomato sauce, cheese and basil), marinara (tomato, garlic, olive oil; no cheese), and Napoletana (tomato sauce, mozzarella, anchovies, olive oil, oregano). 

A limited number of toppings can be added to those (think homemade sausage). He will also sell bruschetta (say broo-SKET-ta, not broo-SHET-ta) using bread made from balls of pizza dough that have been allowed to rise overnight before being baked and topped with a traditional tomato-basil mixture.

Nel bocca del lupa!

Retarded Fermentation

sourdough starter

I’ve been reading more about sourdough cultures, and learned something interesting — and valuable. There are two main acids produced by a sourdough culture; lactic and acetic. Acetic acid is the acid that produces vinegar, and it gives your sourdough bread a more distinctive tang, while lactic acid is associated with yogurt production and gives a smooth, milky flavor. As an aside, lactic acid is a big component in wine, where it is important to convert tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, into softer-tasting lactic acid (malolactic fermentation). There are various ways of balancing how these two acids and flavors in your bread and your starter, including:

Hydration. Lactic acid thrives in a wet environment in your starter.

Whole grain. Acetic acid producing bacteria like whole grains.

Alcohol. Keeping the alcohol produced by fermentation (the think layer of liquid at the top) increases acidity.

Temperature. Acetic acid flourishes at 50F.

For me, this is one of those ah-hah moments. We have all heard (over and over) how retarding fermentation and long, slow fermentation gives us a dough that has more flavor and more character — and I have always intuitively understood that giving yeast more time for work on the flour is a good thing; and it even made sense that a longer fermentation gives enzymes and bacteria time to work on the carbohydrates in the flour (which is a good thing). But the idea that there is a bacteria in sourdough that works a lot better at a cooler temperature (and if you want to get that flavor you need to hold the temperature of your fermenting dough to a very chilly 50F) is such a clear statement. I think I get it. haha.

 

 

 

A Well-Developed Crumb

sourdough crumb

Here is the crumb of my latest sourdough whole wheat toasting bread. This is a 90% whole wheat/10% white AP flour (from my starter) and 70% hydration, so given my tendency to make the occasional whole wheat “brick”, I am really happy with this. This with zero yeast.

It tells me that my starter is very active, and the flavor is very nice. Plus, as many people will tell you, sourdough whole wheat has a lot of character — both in flavor and in the nice chewy texture of the crumb. The basic idea is that sourdough brings a range of bacteria, enzymes and wild yeasts that work on the flour, breaking down its complex carbohydrates and releasing lactic acid.

This was a three stage loaf, with an overnight pre-fermentation (without salt), and then a day-long fermentation (including some time in the refrigerator) with the finish flour and salt.

My sourdough journey will continue!

Sourdough Tang

Wow. When they say that your sourdough keeps getting more sour as you divide it, feed it and leave it at room temperature — they really meat it. My starter became noticeably more sour and more tangy as time when on, and I want to see how far it would go. Today the answer was “really far”. Seriously tangy.

But all good things must come to an end, so today I started a pre-fermentation for a whole wheat loaf, fed my starter and put in into the refrigerator in a plastic, snap-top container.

sourdough starter

 

I not going to slow down on my baking, so it will be interesting to see how a refrigerated starter changes how I build up my dough. If you’ve been thinking about starting a sourdough culture, go for it! It’s a lot of fun, and the bread is great.

Sourdough Rye

Sourdough Rye

This came out pretty good. My first attempt at sourdough rye with my new starter was made in two stages (three if you include building the starter). This is a 500 gram loaf with 70% hydration.

Stage 1. I added 160 grams of whole wheat flour, 160 grams of dark rye flour, 250 grams of water and 10 grams of salt to 180 grams of my starter — which contained 80 grams of white flour and 100 grams of water. Which means that my overnight pre-fermentation contained 400 grams of the flour and all of the water and salt. The overnight rise was good (yes! my starter is very active).

Stage 2. I added the final 100 grams of flour (50 grams of whole wheat and 50 grams of dark rye), and 30 grams each of honey and olive oil. After a multi-hour bulk fermentation, I folded the dough and shaped a boule, let that rise in a baneton for 90 minutes (it was very springy and ready to go into the oven), scored and baked.

sourdough rye

The rye flour has a very distinctive flavor that I like, and I think I can get an even stronger sourdough tang before it becomes to strong. The crumb is moist and very light — particularly considering that it is mostly dark rye and whole wheat flour. As a quick side note, beware of store sourdough rye. It is typically about 85% white flour, with just a little rye. It’s rarely the real thing.

Good stuff.

Pop-Up Bread Proofing Box

I am starting to experiment with sourdough rye (something I have been looking forward to), which got me thinking about multi-stage proofing and the ability to control proofing temperature. My oven has an 85F proofing setting, which has been helpful, but today I came across this.

pop up proofing box

It’s from Brod & Taylor, and it costs about $150, and the temperature can be set at 70 – 120F. You know. Perfect for bread proofing. It pops up when you are using it and folds down for storage. And it has an internal water tray that allows it to maintain even 60-80% humidity, so you don’t have to cover your loaves.

Very, very interesting.

One note on my sourdough starter. They say that if you divide and feed your starter every day,  and leave it out on the counter, that it will get more and more sour over time. And they’re right! My starter is now very tangy, and I really like it. At some point I am going to have to consider storing it in the refrigerator.

More to come on my sourdough rye.

 

Next, a Sourdough Baguette

IMG_1243

I started my baguette around noon to give the dough time to develop, and went with 100% AP flour and hydration of 70%+ — I’m not really sure exactly what it was, but it was too high. My dough didn’t have enough structure to proof in baguette shape without sagging sideways. It might have been too much water and it might have been the flour. You can see that my loaf is flatter than I would like.

Recently I have been using both Central Milling Tipo 00 flour and Caputo Pizzeria flour — both of which are just great, but I ran out both. Sort of like the cobbler’s kids shoes. So I had to use Trader Joe’s AP white flour, and while there isn’t anything wrong with it, it definitely is not as nice to work with as the artisan flours.

The bread has a subtle sourdough tang, the crust was crunchy and thick, and the crumb was moist with a nice elastic texture. But I have never been able to get a nice caramel brown exterior with I use the Trader Joe’s flour.

Next up I am going to try a more adventurous whole wheat loaf with an overnight soaker for the whole wheat flour. For now I am going to keep dividing my starter for baking and continue leaving it outsides. It’s never hot here (pretty much in the 60′s year round), so I don’t really think there is a risk of having the starter become too acidic as long as I am using it most days — and for now, it is continuing to develop the stronger sourdough tang that I like.

Time to get a supply of nice flour in the house.